A non-luminous flame is colourless and is much hotter. A non-luminous flame undergoes complete combustion as it draws much more oxygen and gets much hotter. There are several "zones" within a non-luminous flame, and each zone has a different temperature.
The outermost zone of the flame is blue in colour and it is the hottest part. This is due to complete combustion.
The middle zone is moderately hot and is yellow in colour. This is because of partial combustion.
The innermost zone is the least hot and black in colour. This is due to the presence of unburned wax vapours.
Section-1: General Science - Chemistry Question - 12
Structural isomers containing different bond types are:
Gelatin is a mixture of peptides and proteins produced by partial hydrolysis of collagen extracted from the skin, bones, and connective tissues of animals such as domesticated cattle, chicken, pigs, and fish.
During hydrolysis, the natural molecular bonds between individual collagen strands are broken down into a form that rearranges more easily.
Its chemical composition is, in many respects, closely similar to that of its parent collagen. Photographic and pharmaceutical grades of gelatin are generally sourced from beef bones.
Section-1: General Science - Chemistry Question - 14
Butyl rubber is made by cationic polymerisation of:
Butyl rubber is a synthetic rubber, a copolymer of isobutylene with isoprene.
Butyl rubber is impermeable to air and used in many applications requiring an airtight rubber. Butyl rubber has excellent impermeability, and the long polyisobutylene segments of its polymer chains give it good flex properties.
Section-1: General Science - Chemistry Question - 15
Flourine is the lightest halogen and exists as a highly toxic pale yellow diatomic gas at standard conditions. As the most electronegative element, it is extremely reactive: almost all other elements, including some noble gases, form compounds with fluorine.