The originator of this theory was Paul Rosenstein-Rodan in 1943.
The big push model is a concept in development economics or welfare economics that emphasizes that a firm's decision whether to industrialize or not depends on its expectation of what other firms will do.
It assumes economies of scale and oligopolistic market structure and explains when industrialization would happen.
In financial markets, 'hot money' is the flow of funds (or capital) from one country to another in order to earn a short-term profit on interest rate differences and/or anticipated exchange rate shifts.
These speculative capital flows are called 'hot money' because they can move very quickly in and out of markets, potentially leading to market instability.
Section-1: Indian-Economy Question - 18
Which of the following controls the Monetary Policy of the Indian Rupee?
Gilt-edged securities are bonds issued by certain national governments. The term is of British origin, and originally referred to the debt securities issued by the Bank of England, whose paper certificates had a gilt (or gilded) edge.
Hence, they are known as gilt-edged securities, or gilts for short.
Today the term is used in the United Kingdom as well as some Commonwealth nations, such as South Africa and India.
Typically, these are issued by blue chip companies that dependably meet dividend or interest payments because they are well-established and financially stable.
However, when reference is made to "gilts", what is generally meant is UK gilts, unless otherwise specified.
Section-1: Indian-Economy Question - 20
Non-Development expenditure of the Central government does not include:
Expenditures in the nature of consumption such as Defence, interest payments, expenditure on law and order, public administration, do not create any productive asset which can bring income or returns to the government are non-development expenditure.
Thus, infrastructure development is not part of non-Development expenditure.