Critical Reasoning
Verbal Ability

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Studies in restaurants show that the tips left by customers who pay their bill in cash tend to be larger when the bill is presented on a tray that bears a credit-card logo. Consumer psychologists hypothesize that simply seeing a credit-card logo makes many credit-card holders willing to spend more because it reminds them that their spending power exceeds the cash they have immediately available.

Which of the following, if true, most stronglysupports the psychologists' interpretation of the studies?


The effect noted in the studies is not limited to patrons who have credit cards.


Patrons who are under financial pressure from their credit-card obligations tend to tip less when presented with a restaurant bill on a tray with a credit-card logothan when the tray has no logo.


In virtually all of the cases in the studies, the patrons who paid bills in cash did not possess credit cards.


In general, restaurant patrons who paytheir bills in cash leave larger tips than do those who pay by credit card.


The percentage of restaurant bills paid with a given brand of credit card increases when that credit card's logo is displayed on the tray with which the bill is presented.

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Option(B) is correct

Option A : This undermines the psychologists' interpretation, for it shows that the same phenomenon occurs even when the alleged causehas been removed.

Option B : Correct. This option identifies the result that would most strengthen the psychologists' interpretation.

Option C : This undermines the psychologists' interpretation by showing that the same phenomenon occurs even when the alleged cause has been removed; patrons cannot be reminded of something that is not there.

Option D : To the extent that this bears on the interpretation of the study, it weakens it. Patrons using credit cards are surely aware that they have credit, and yet they spend less generously.

Option E : Tliis does idea that being reminded that one has a credit card induces one to be more generous, only that it induces one to use that credit card.

The correct answer is B.

(1) Comment(s)


(B) is not the correct choice. If any, the statement in (B) is contradictory to the interpretation of the psychologists.